Integrated Listening and Reading — 3

Источник задания: Всероссийская олимпиада школьников 2012/13, региональный этап

Read the text about the salmon migration, then listen to a part of the lecture on the same topic. You will notice that some ideas coincide and some differ in them. Answer the questions by choosing A if the idea is expressed in both materials, B if it can be found only in the audio recording, C if it can be found only in the reading text, and D if neither of the materials expresses the idea.

Now you have 7 minutes to read the text.

Salmon, a fish prized for both food and sport, has a complex life cycle. After spending several years in the ocean, adult salmon travel back to the freshwater streams where they were originally spawned, to lay their eggs. The females bury the eggs under the sand at the bottom of the streams. When the fish are large enough, two years after hatching, the young salmon, called smolts, drift into rivers from smaller streams. The smolts use the strong flow from the melting snows to get to the Pacific Ocean, where they travel until they return to start the cycle again.

The damming of river systems in the northwestern region of the United States has had devastating effects on salmon. Not only are dams an obstacle for salmon navigating upstream, but they are also an impediment for the smolts travelling to the sea. The current itself has become very slow, not just because of the construction of numerous dams but also because companies intentionally operate the dams to slow the current. They store the water from the melting snow until the winter, when more electric power is needed. As fewer smolts reach the oceans and fewer adults return, salmon fail to produce a sufficiently numerous new generation. This could eventually lead to the extinction of the fish.

Attempts are being made to get the young salmon downriver more quickly. One such attempt has consisted of transporting the smolts by barge. Another suggestion, proposed by environmentalists, is to increase the rate of water flow. Also under consideration is the reduction of the water level in the reservoirs for a period in the spring when the smolts are migrating downstream. This would also increase the flow rate temporarily, without requiring massive amounts of water, and thus enable the young salmon to move downstream faster.

Now listen to a part of the lecture on the same topic and then do the task comparing the text above and the lecture. You will hear the lecture twice.

1. Snow-melting water is kept in reservoirs until the winter when more electricity has to be produced.


A

B

C

D

2. The strength of the current affects the lifecycle of salmons.


A

B

C

D

3. Power companies are eager to help environmentalists save the species from complete extinction.


A

B

C

D

4. Artificial transportation to the sea can damage great numbers of young salmon.


A

B

C

D

5. Dams can cause problems to fish migration.


A

B

C

D

6. One of the methods proposed for restoring salmon population is using barges for transporting smolts to the salt water.


A

B

C

D

7. As an organism, salmon goes through various stages of its development.


A

B

C

D

8. Smolts move upstream to reach their natural habitat.


A

B

C

D

9. The reason why a lot of fish die is that they have already changed to live in the ocean water, while the long trip keeps them in fresh water no longer suitable for their bodies.


A

B

C

D

10. There are two main reasons for which salmon is considered to be valuable.


A

B

C

D

11. The Pacific Ocean is the favourite hatching place of adult salmon females.


A

B

C

D

12. The time necessary for young salmon to reach the ocean in natural conditions is from one to three weeks.


A

B

C

D

13. Melting snow can help young salmon to reach seawater.


A

B

C

D

14. Large-scale damming intensifies the flow of water and thus triggers the hatching.


A

B

C

D

15. Several solutions proposed for facilitating salmon migration have been criticised.


A

B

C

D

© Екатерина Яковлева, 2016–2018