Integrated Listening and Reading — 4

Read the text about chocolate (you have 7 minutes to read), then watch a video on a similar topic (you may watch the video twice). You will notice that some ideas coincide and some differ in the two materials. Answer questions 1–15 by choosing A if the idea is expressed in both materials, B if it can be found only in the audio recording, C if it can be found only in the reading text, and D if neither of the materials expresses the idea.

Chocolate

It's hard to pin down exactly when chocolate was born, but it's clear that it was cherished from the start. For several centuries in pre-modern Latin America, cacao beans were considered valuable enough to use as currency. One bean could be traded for a tamale, while 100 beans could purchase a good turkey hen, according to a 16th-century Aztec document.

Both the Mayans and Aztecs believed the cacao bean had magical, or even divine, properties, suitable for use in the most sacred rituals of birth, marriage and death. Aztec sacrifice victims who felt too melancholy to join in ritual dancing before their death were often given a gourd of chocolate (tinged with the blood of previous victims) to cheer them up.

Sweetened chocolate didn't appear until Europeans discovered the Americas and sampled the native cuisine. Legend has it that the Aztec king Montezuma welcomed the Spanish explorer Hernando Cortes with a banquet that included drinking chocolate, having tragically mistaken him for a reincarnated deity instead of a conquering invader. Chocolate didn't suit the foreigners' tastebuds at first — one described it in his writings as "a bitter drink for pigs" — but once mixed with honey or cane sugar, it quickly became popular throughout Spain.

By the 17th century, chocolate was a fashionable drink throughout Europe, but it remained largely a privilege of the rich until the invention of the steam engine made mass production possible in the late 1700s.

In 1828, a Dutch chemist found a way to make powdered chocolate by removing about half the natural fat (cacao butter) from chocolate liquor, pulverizing what remained and treating the mixture with alkaline salts to cut the bitter taste. His product became known as "Dutch cocoa," and it soon led to the creation of solid chocolate.

The creation of the first modern chocolate bar is credited to Joseph Fry, who in 1847 discovered that he could make a moldable chocolate paste by adding melted cacao butter back into Dutch cocoa.

1. Chocolate had existed in America long before the 16th century.


A

B

C

D

2. Aztecs believed that chocolate was a divine gift.


A

B

C

D

3. Chocolate was used as a method of payment.


A

B

C

D

4. In some tribes chocolate was used during rituals.


A

B

C

D

5. In Europe, chocolate was believed to have medicinal properties.


A

B

C

D

6. The Spanish explorers didn't like the taste of chocolate.


A

B

C

D

7. There were times when chocolate was forbidden.


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B

C

D

8. Making solid chocolate became possible thanks to a European discovery.


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B

C

D

9. Powdered chocolate was known as "Dutch cocoa".


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B

C

D

10. Before a certain invention, chocolate was popular in Europe, but only wealthy people could afford it.


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B

C

D

11. Europeans started sweetening chocolate.


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B

C

D

12. Milk chocolate was invented in Switzerland.


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B

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D

13. Nestle is one of the companies that pioneered milk chocolate.


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B

C

D

14. Nowadays there is an increasing interest in high-quality, handmade chocolates.


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B

C

D

15. 2/5 of the world cocoa is produced in Africa.


A

B

C

D

© Екатерина Яковлева, 2016–2018